Civil Society


(EN) Our Civil Society

Our Civil Society begins around the year 1500 BC with the advent of the Myceneans to Cyprus. The Myceneans brought their language, customs and religion. The Achaeans followed bringing to the island their priests, oracles, gods, altars, epic poetry and city-states. Salamis, Kitium, Amathus, Akamas, Marion, Aepia, and Idalion are paid lip service in 12th century BC inscription in Egypt.

The independence of the city-states suffered its first infringement under Ptolemy with the establishment of the Koinon, the first federal system of government in Cyprus in the year 294 BC. Under the Koinon, the city-states continued to have their parliament, demos (assembly of citizens), secretary and Gymnasium Principal. The Koinonwas invested with religious duties and the jurisdiction to cut coins. This federal form of government persisted after the demise of Antony and Cleopatra in the year 31 BC when Cyprus became officially a province of the Roman Empire, initially under the Emperor and later under the Roman Senate, and lasted throughout the Principate period retaining a genuine civil form of governance and lifestyle. In the Domination era, civil society had its first setbacks undergoing a gradual conversion due to the slow but inevitable predominance of the Christian religion.

As in other parts of the Roman Empire, first during the Domination years ending in the year 565 AD, and second during the Byzantine period Cyprus enjoyed a diminished form of civil society preserved under the Theodosian and Justinian Code of Civil Law, later given the name Corpus luris Civilis. Ever since the 4th century AD Cyprus enjoined a dichotomy of powers divided into secular and temporal, the first carried out by virtue of a Civil Code.

The latest version of the Civil Code had been compiled in the 15th century AD in Six Books, by Armenopoulos, governing secular matters. Temporal matters were vested exclusively in the autocephalous church of Cyprus by virtue of the Holy Canons and its Charter for the Greeks. A second temporal power emerged in 1570 AD solemnly declared by Lala Mustafa Pasha on 15th September in Hagia Sophia establishing the Vakf Institution and Vakf Principles and Laws for the Turkish Community immediately after the sacking of Nicosia. Both Temporal powers are in force under the provisions of the 1960 Constitution.

Civil Society, however, suffered a further degradation, due to the tacit circumvention of civil rights and liberties in the mid-1950s, mid-1960s and finally in the mid-1970s being the outcome of hostilities between the two communities. Civil rights had never been taken seriously in Cyprus ever since the Principate times came to an end, and reference to them today implies merely gay rights.



Nuestra Sociedad Civil comienza alrededor del año 1500 a.C., con la llegada de los micénicos a Chipre. Los micénicos trajeron su idioma, las costumbres y la religión. Los aqueos siguieron trayendo a la isla a sus sacerdotes, oráculos, dioses, altares, la poesía épica y ciudades-estado. Salamina, Kitium, Amathus, Akamas, Marion, AEPIA y Idalion se pagan de boquilla en la inscripción del siglo 12 antes de Cristo en Egipto. La independencia de las ciudades-estado sufrió su primera infracción en las Ptolomeo con el establecimiento de la Koinon, el primer sistema federal de gobierno en Chipre en el año 294 antes de Cristo. Bajo el Koinon, las ciudades-estado sigue teniendo su parlamento, demos (asamblea de ciudadanos), secretario y Gimnasio Principal. El Koinon fue investido con los deberes religiosos y la jurisdicción para cortar monedas.

Esta forma de gobierno federal persistió después de la desaparición de Antonio y Cleopatra en el año 31 a.C., cuando Chipre se convirtió oficialmente en una provincia del Imperio Romano, inicialmente bajo el emperador y más tarde bajo el senado romano, y se prolongó durante todo el período de retención de un auténtico principado civil, forma de gobierno y estilo de vida. En la era de la dominación, la sociedad civil tuvo sus primeros reveses sometidos a una conversión gradual debido al predominio lento pero inevitable de la religión cristiana. Al igual que en otras partes del Imperio Romano, primero durante los años de dominación que terminan en el año 565 d.C., y la segunda durante el período bizantino Chipre gozó de una forma disminuida de la sociedad civil conservado bajo el Código de Derecho Civil de Teodosio y Justiniano, más tarde recibió el nombre de Corpus Iuris Civilis (ClC).

Desde el siglo 4 d.C. Chipre impuso una dicotomía de poderes divididos en secular y temporal, el primero que se realiza en virtud de un Código Civil. La última versión del Código Civil había sido compilada en el siglo 15 d.C., en seis libros, por Armenopoulos, gobernando mater seculares. Asuntos temporales fueron investidos exclusivamente en la Iglesia autocéfala de Chipre en virtud de la Santa Cánones y su Carta para los griegos. Un segundo poder temporal surgió en 1570 AD declaró solemnemente por Lala Mustafa Pasha el 15 de septiembre en la iglesia de Santa Sofía se establecen los principios y leyes Vakf Institución y Vakf para la comunidad turca inmediatamente después del saqueo de Nicosia. Ambos poderes temporales están en vigor en virtud de lo dispuesto en la Constitución de 1960.

Friendship | Generosity | Mathematics


Friendship | Generosity | Mathematics

We are now in April and we are looking towards the development of generosity and friendship.

Generosity is a virtue, not a trifling behaviour. In the 19th century the American thinker from Boston (United States), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), has rightly observed that the biggest gift is a piece of us!

We must not forget that the generous person is self-demanding in contrast with the vulgar who is demanding more from others.

Children are reluctant to share things until they develop their capacity of reason.

Generosity comprises spending for things which are praiseworthy and at the same time not taking from where one should not; it is combining with other virtues, such as a mild character, good manners, philanthropy, compassion, friendship, hospitality and the focusing on the good.

Friendship on the other hand is the ability for mutual respect, appreciation, devotion, understanding and trust between two or more persons.

A friend is a familiar person, a really good partner and a be-loved one.

As such pairs of friends we have:

–      Diomedes and Sthenelos,

–      Achilles and Patroclus,

–      Sarpedon and Glafkos.

Friendship operates in the same way as the attraction mediates in the centre of the universal sphere protecting it from falling into disarray.

In the mathematical theory of Phytagoras’ friendly numbers 220 is equal to the sum of the sub-multiples of 284 and the sum of the multiples of 284 is equal to the sub-multiples of 220 as you can see below:

Calculating firstly… 220 / 2 = 110; 220 / 110 = 2; 220 / 4 = 55; 220 / 55 = 4; 220 / 5 = 44; 220 / 44 = 5; 220 / 10 = 22; 220 / 22 = 10; 220 / 11 = 20; 220 / 20 = 11

Pythagoras’ first result: 110 + 2 + 55 + 4 + 44 +5 + 22 +10 + 20 + 11 + unit = 284

Caldulating secondly… 284 / 2 = 142; 284 / 142 = 2; 284 / 4 = 71; 284 / 71 = 4

Pythagoras’ second Result: 142 + 2 + 71 + 4 + unit = 220

Connecting with You and Your results?

March | Read | Enjoy the Sun in Spring


Dear Er-Eader,

Thank you for reading my monthly news. This month we are guided to be brave and nimble.

These are great virtues, and we are great only then when we are able to practice them.

Virtues seem to interact between them, so we have to be specific and recognize their relationship with good habits and right choices.

As a first step to this achievement you may download on your Kindle my book in English and Frenc. It is available in other languages, too. The best starting point is my book giving the basic guidelines for a successful mind control mind-set.

I am looking forward to your kind response. Thank you.

Seasonal wishes and Happy New Year


Thank you for all your cards and the best wishes for the coming year 2013.

I wish you all a Pleasant Holiday and Joyous Christmas season and a Happy and Prosperous New Year 2013.

Argyro G. Toumazou | | Expert for Cyprus | Southern Europe.


2 Angels

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Copyright (c) 2009 – 2012, Agyro G. Toumazou, A. T. Glowcal Ltd., | |, Cyprus,


Polity and Cyprus


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The chain store paradox

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